It’s been quite a remarkable past 25 years for the gaming industry and the world in general, as this timeline of events both large and small shows.

1987

• Combined yearly gaming revenue from Nevada and Atlantic City-the only two U.S.-based commercial casino markets at this time-surpasses $8.5 billion.
• In California v. Cabazon, the Supreme Court upheld the right of tribes as sovereign nations to conduct gaming on Indian lands free of state control when similar gaming is permitted by the state.
• First issue of Casino Journal published.

Elsewhere in the world…
• President Ronald Reagan dares Soviet Premier Mikhail Gorbachev to tear down the Berlin Wall during a trip to Germany.
• Black Monday-stock markets around the world crash, the Dow Jones sheds 508 points in a single day.



1988

• Congress approves Indian Gaming Regulatory Act (IGRA) to affirm tribal gaming rights and give states the power to negotiate casino compacts with tribes. The National Indian Gaming Commission is also formed to help with this process.
• The Multi-State Lottery Association (MUSL)-the first multi-jurisdictional lottery-is formed with seven state lotteries as charter members and Powerball, a game designed to generate large jackpots, is launched.
• The New York Lottery introduces electronic keno.

Elsewhere in the world…
• Premier Gorbachev initiates a series of economic restructuring programs commonly referred to as perestroika.
• The Soviet Union begins its withdrawal from Afghanistan.
• The Iran-Iraq war ends.
• Sonny Bono is elected Mayor of Palm Springs, Calif.



1989

• The Mirage, the world’s first casino megaresort, opens on the Las Vegas Strip.
• South Dakota becomes the first casino gaming jurisdiction outside of Nevada and New Jersey when it agrees to low-stakes land-based gaming facilities.
• Iowa approves riverboat gaming, the first state to do so.
• Minnesota becomes one of the first states to sign Indian gaming compacts, coming to terms with seven tribes.

Elsewhere in the world…
• Communist governments are overthrown in East Germany, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, Poland and Romania.
• Tiananmen Square protests occur in China.
• The Exxon Valdez oil spill rocks Alaska.
Seinfeld debuts on NBC.



1990

• First JCM Global bill validator embedded into slot machine at Mirage Las Vegas, forever changing slot play.
• Showing the megaresort trends has legs, Excalibur debuts in Las Vegas.
• Colorado becomes the second state to approve limited stakes land-based casino gaming.
• Illinois joins Iowa in legalizing riverboat gaming.
• Mississippi passes legislation creating a new form of casino development-dockside gaming.
• Trump Taj Mahal, Atlantic City’s first $1 billion resort, opens.

Elsewhere in the world…
• United States invades Panama, captures General Manuel Noriega.
• West and East Germany agree to merge and form a single nation.



1991

• The first Iowa and Illinois riverboats launch.
• Louisiana passes commercial gaming enabling legislation.
• The Virginia Lottery debuts the first instant ticket vending machine.
• Land-based casinos of very sizes start to open throughout Russia.

Elsewhere in the world…
• The first Gulf War takes place to force Iraq out of Kuwait.
• Hard-liner coup against Soviet President Gorbachev fails; he later steps down voluntarily as Soviet Union dissolves.
• Las Angeles Laker Magic Johnson announces he has HIV.



1992

• The racino gaming format is born when Rhode Island approves a plan to offer slots at Twin Rivers, an existing greyhound racetrack.
• Forum Shops at Caesars unveiled in Las Vegas. It quickly becomes one of the most successful high-end malls in the U.S.
• Sun City opens in South Africa, spreading the megaresort concept beyond U.S. shores.
• The first multi-national lottery, Viking Lotto, was introduced in 1992 by five participating Scandinavian countries.
• Arizona establishes gaming compacts with 16 tribes, giving them exclusive rights to operate slots and casino-style games.

Elsewhere in the world…
• The Maastricht Treaty creating the European Union is signed.
• The Rodney King verdict riots take place in Los Angeles.
• Charles and Diana, the Prince and Princess of Wales, separate.



1993

• MGM Grand and Treasure Island megaresorts open in Las Vegas.
• Indiana approves riverboat gaming.
• Mashantucket Pequot Tribe signs compact with state of Connecticut to allow slot machines at Foxwoods Resort Casino. It grows to become one of the largest and highest-grossing casinos in the United States.
• Michigan signs compacts with seven tribes, clearing the way for them to build Class III gaming facilities on tribal lands.

Elsewhere in the world…
• Bill Clinton becomes the 42nd President of the United States.
• The European Community agrees to eliminate trade barriers, essentially creating a single European market.
• A deranged fan stabs tennis star Monica Seles during a match in Germany.



1994

RPM Advertising is established.
• Delaware and West Virginia approve racino legislation.
• Atlantis Paradise Island opens in the Bahamas.
• Riverboat casinos debut in Missouri.
• The UK National lottery launches.

Elsewhere in the world…
• Nelson Mandela elected President of South Africa.
• Nirvana lead singer Kurt Cobain commits suicide.



1995

• The American Gaming Association is established.
• The first online casinos launch.
• The combined yearly revenue at U.S. commercial casinos surpasses $15 billion.
• Freemont Street Experience unveiled to revitalize downtown Las Vegas.

Elsewhere in the world…
• California jury acquits O.J. Simpson on murder charges stemming from the deaths of Nicole Brown Simpson and Ronald Goldman.
• The Dayton Agreement is signed, ending the four-year war in Bosnia.
• The World Trade Organization is formed.



1996

SCA Promotions launches SCA Gaming, a division that has since deployed over 4,000 promotions for 475 casinos worldwide.
• Michigan approves commercial casino gaming, earmarking resorts for major urban areas in need of renewal.

• The Stratosphere opens in Las Vegas.
• National Center for Responsible Gaming is established as the gaming industry intensifies its efforts to identify and aid problem gamblers.
• Mohegan Sun opens in Connecticut, quickly challenges Foxwoods for top property in the New England gaming marketplace.
• Another multi-jurisdictional lottery game, The Big Game/Mega Millions, is formed.

Elsewhere in the world…
• Boris Yeltsin becomes Russia’s first President.
•“Unabomber” Theodore Kaczynski arrested in Montana.



1997

• Racino legislation passed in New Mexico.
• Lone Star Park debuts in Texas, last major horse racing-only facility to open in the U.S.

Elsewhere in the world…
• Diana, Princess of Wales, dies in a Paris traffic accident.
• Tony Blair elected UK Prime Minister.
• J.K. Rowling published her first Harry Potter book, Harry Potter and the Philosopher’s Stone.
• James Cameron’s Titanic hits U.S. movie theatres.



1998

• The Gaming Standards Association forms as the industry collaborative group setting award-winning technical standards.
• Bellagio unveiled in Las Vegas.
• California Gov. Pete Wilson begins to negotiate gaming compacts with a number of state tribes.
• First online poker rooms established.
• Tunica surpasses $1 billion in yearly gaming revenue, becoming the second Mississippi casino market after Biloxi to gain this distinction.  

Elsewhere in the world…
• Various parties sign the Belfast Agreement/Good Friday Accords aimed at ending the conflict in Northern Ireland.
• Google is founded in California.



1999

• The Venetian Resort Hotel Casino, the model for future integrated casino resort developments, debuts in Las Vegas.
• AILE, the International Association of State Lotteries, and Intertoto, the International Association of Toto and Lotto Organizations, merge to form the World Lottery Association.
• The U.S. Supreme Court strikes down a 65-year federal ban on casino games advertising.
• Beau Rivage opens in Biloxi, Miss.
• Illinois becomes the first state to remove the cruising requirement from riverboats, essentially making them dockside casinos.
• Combined yearly revenue at U.S. commercial casinos surpasses $20 billion.
• National Gambling Impact Study Commission Report released.

Elsewhere in the world…
• The euro is established as the official currency of the European Union.
• Macau is officially returned to China
• Napster, a music downloading service, debuts.
• Yeltsin resigns; Vladimir Putin takes over as President of Russia.
• Lance Armstrong wins his first Tour de France.



2000

• Tribal gaming facilities surpass $10 billion in combined yearly gaming revenue.
• MGM Grand acquires Mirage resorts for $6.4 billion.
• Harrah’s Entertainment introduces its influential Total Rewards customer loyalty program, the gaming industry’s first national, multi-brand loyalty effort.
• California voters approve Prop 1A, eventually clearing the way for Las Vegas-style gaming at tribal resorts.
• Barona Casino & Resort installs first all-TITO slot floor, first California casino to offer Class III slot games.
• Association of Gaming Equipment Manufacturers formed.

Elsewhere in the world…
• After a close and highly contentious national election that was finally decided by a Supreme Court decision, George W. Bush becomes the 43rd President of the United States.
• Microsoft found guilty of violating antitrust laws.
• Charles M. Schulz, the creator of the “Peanuts” comic strip, dies.



2001

Bally Technologies goes on a technology-buying spree purchasing Casino MarketPlace, ACSC, CMS and Sierra Design Group.
• The Palms debuts in Las Vegas as the first large-scale casino property developed specifically to attract hipper, younger clientele.
• New York approves racino legislation, allowing state tracks to offer slot machine gaming.
• American Gaming Association launched first Global Gaming Expo (G2E) conference and trade show.
• Hard Rock and Seminole Tribe ink deal to open two casinos in Florida.


Elsewhere in the world…
• September 11 terrorist attacks target New York and Washington D.C.
• Enron files for bankruptcy protection, becoming the largest company to do so in U.S. history.
• Apple introduces the iPod.
• George Harrison, lead guitarist for the Beatles, dies.



2002

• People’s Republic of China ends Sociedade de Turismo e Diversões de Macau monopoly on casino gaming in Macau, clearing the way for gaming operators to apply for a limited number of casino concessions.
• Las Vegas Sands and Wynn Resorts win 20-year gaming compacts from the Macau government.
• Internet Gaming legal in 68 jurisdictions worldwide, generates an estaimated $4 billion in yearly revenue.
• Arizona Governor signs off on 10-year gaming compacts with 17 tribes.

Elsewhere in the world…
• President Bush signs the Homeland Security Act into law.
• The Mars Odyssey rover finds large water ice deposits on Mars.



2003

JCM Global introduces first resident memory module deployed on bill validator cashbox (ICB), dramatically speeding drop process.
• The Borgata Casino Hotel and Spa unveiled in Atlantic City, the city’s first megaresort since 1990.
• Tribal gaming tops $14 billion in nationwide yearly revenue.
• Harrah’s acquires Horseshoe Gaming for $1.45 billion.

Elsewhere in the world…
• The second Gulf War begins when the U.S. and allies invades Iraq.
• Martha Stewart found guilty of insider trading.
• California voters recall Gov. Gray Davis and elect actor Arnold Schwarzenegger to succeed him.



2004

GLORY USA introduces cash recyclers to the U.S. banking, retail and gaming industries.
• Maine approves racino legislation.
• Oklahoma OKs racinos and Class III gaming compacts with state tribes.
• Pennsylvania voters approve commercial gaming legislation, clearing the way for racinos and limited casino development in the state.
• Sands Macau opens in China, ushering a new wave of gaming development into the enclave.

Elsewhere in the world…
• SpaceShipOne becomes the first privately-funded vehicle to obtain spaceflight.
• Facebook is founded.
• The Boston Red Sox win the World Series for the first time since 1918.



2005

• Hurricane Katrina hits Mississippi and Louisiana, decimating the Gulf Coast gaming industry.
• Wynn Las Vegas unveiled, ushering in a trend toward non-themed upper-end casino resort development.
• Merger mania as MGM Mirage acquires Mandalay Resort Group and Harrah’s Entertainment purchases Caesars Entertainment.
• UK Gambling Act is passed, land-based casino laws are updated and online gaming is regulated throughout the United Kingdom.
• Tribal gaming facilities surpass $20 billion in combined yearly gaming revenue.

Elsewhere in the world…
• The Kyoto Protocols to curb greenhouse gas emission go into effect without the support of Australia and the United States
• Pope John Paul II dies, Pope Benedict XVI elected successor.



2006

• Florida approves racino enabling measure.
• Unlawful Internet Gaming Enforcement Act (UIGEA) passed by Congress, effectively closing the U.S. market to Web casinos and other forms of online wagering.
• Macau yearly gaming revenue ($6.95 billion) officially surpasses Las Vegas Strip ($6.6 billion) revenue, making it the largest single gaming market in the world.
• Atlantic City reaches its highwater mark of $5.2 billion in yearly combined casino gaming revenue.
• Chile announces it will award 18 news land-based casino gaming licenses.

Elsewhere in the world…
• Twitter is launched.
• Pluto is delisted as a planet, now considered a “dwarf” planet.



2007

• Kansas legalizes state-owned commercial casino gaming.
• Harrah’s Entertainment is bought out by Apollo Management and Texas Pacific Group for $27.8 billion, the largest buyout/merger deal in gaming industry history.
• Dubai World invests $7.4 billion in MGM’s CityCenter development.
• Combined yearly revenue at U.S. commercial casinos reaches highwater mark of $37.52 billion.

Elsewhere in the world…
• Bulgaria and Romania join the European Union.
• Apple introduces the iPhone.
Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows, the final book of the Harry Potter series, is released.



2008

• Maryland voters approve commercial casino gaming.
• Combined yearly revenue at tribal gaming properties reaches highwater mark of $26.73 billion.

Elsewhere in the world…
• The price of a barrel or oil passes $100 for the first time.
• Fidel Castro steps down as President of Cuba.
• Lehman Brothers files for Chapter 11, setting off a series of events that eventually leads to the biggest one day point decline in Dow Jones history (777 points) and a worldwide financial crisis.
• Barack Obama is elected the 44th President of the United States.



2009

JCM Global introduces contact image sensor (CIS) for currency validation to gaming industry, capturing entire note image.
• City Center opens in Las Vegas. The 16 million-square-foot mixed-used gaming facility is arguably the largest single gaming project in the U.S. and the world. It also opened with the first ever casino-wide installation of a server-based gaming network.
• Russia’s massive, unregulated land-based casino industry officially shut down by the government, replaced by four gaming enclaves in remote parts of the country.
• Mexico legalizes Class III slot machine gaming.

Elsewhere in the world…
• The ongoing financial crisis leads to the collapse of Iceland’s government and banking system.
• European Union members ratify the Treaty of Lisbon.
• Pop star Michael Jackson dies.



2010

• Marina Bay Sands and Resorts World Sentosa integrated gaming resorts open in Singapore.
• Macau casinos generate over $20 billion in yearly combined casino revenue.
• Cosmopolitan unveiled in Las Vegas.
• Sugarhouse Casino, the first gaming facility in Philadelphia, debuts.
• Various Canadian provinces sanction online gaming.
• Racinos in Delaware, Pennsylvania and West Virginia allowed to offer table game wagering.

Elsewhere in the world…
• Haiti suffers a devastating 7.0-magnitude earthquake.
• The Deepwater Horizon platform explodes in the Gulf of Mexico, inundating Louisiana and Mississippi coasts with oil.
• Greece receives its first bailout package from the Eurozone and IMF.



2011

• Carnival Corporation, the largest cruise vacation group in the world, chooses BIS²’s state-of-the-art BI software to help better manage its cruise ship gaming operations.
• Resorts World opens in Queens, N.Y., bringing slot gaming to New York City.
• Casino legalization legislation passes in Massachusetts.
• Justice department rules the Wire Act applies only to sports wagering, clearing the way for federal or state governments to regulate Web gaming.

Elsewhere in the world…
• Arab Spring uprisings overthrow governments in Middle East.
• A massive earthquake and tsunami decimate parts of Japan.
• Osama Bin Laden killed during raid by U.S. forces.



2012

• TDWI Names BIS² World Leader in Advanced Analytics in 2012 Best Practices Awards.
BIS² is recognized for two of its latest products, tableVizPLUS and Customer Preference Calculators, by Casino Journal’s Top 20 Most Innovative Gaming Technology Products Awards for 2011.
• In the summer of 2012, BIS² releases the much anticipated Version 8 of its multi-award winning gameViz software.
• Station Casinos, the leading provider of gaming and entertainment to Las Vegas residents, chooses to install BIS²’s gameViz software to take their gaming and analytical capabilities to the next level.
• First Ohio casinos open.
• Revel, Atlantic City’s first casino since 2003, debuts.
• Nevada issues first U.S. Internet gaming licenses.

Elsewhere in the world…
• Greece is bailed out a second time by Eurozone finance ministers.
• Queen Elizabeth II celebrates her Diamond Jubilee.

  Sources: Casino Journal, International Gaming & Wagering Business, Wikipedia, American Gaming Association, National Indian Gaming Association, National Indian Gaming Commission, Bloomberg, NASPL, World Lottery Association, New York Times, Oklahoma Historical Society, eHow.com.